The main differences between Estonian and British culture

Back in 1999 I spent a year living in Tallinn, Estonia as a Year Team member with IFES. This week I have been clearing out some old files and I found some hand-written notes I made on what I learnt in the 15 months I lived there about the main differences between British and Estonian culture. I thought it would be worth recording this here on my blog in case any Estonians are coming to live in the UK or vice versa.

Most of the below are generalisations, and they are now 13 years old so things might have changed a little! There will be always exceptions to the rule but I hope this helps anyone who wants to do business or live in Estonia/Britain from an Estonian or British background. Do let me know in the comments if you can think of any further differences!

Tallinn - Estonia

Social occasions

  • In Britain, when entering a house, we wipe our feet but we do not remove our shoes (unless specifically asked to do so). In Estonia, it is considered rude to leave one’s shoes on indoors.
  • In Britain we tend to ask a visitor a lot of questions (eg. Where are you from? What do you do? etc) and the visitor is always the centre of attention. The hosts see it as their job to ‘entertain’ their guest. In Estonia you can quickly make somebody very uncomfortable by asking them a lot of questions. The visitor must take initiative to speak – otherwise nothing much is said!
  • When leaving somebody’s house in Britain it is polite to say ‘thank you for having me’. In fact, in general in Britain, quite a fuss is made over saying hello and goodbye. If you have not seen the person for a while hugs and kisses are usual. Estonians tend not to show affection physically (eg. with a hug).
  • If somebody gives you a meal in Britain it is polite to thank them and comment on how nice the food is (even if it isn’t!) We say our pleases and thank yous even when we don’t mean it. We consider it more important to say it than actually mean it from our hearts.

Food and drink

  • British people will offer guests tea/coffee a number of times (usually about 3) until the guest accepts. If you say no the first time in Britain you can guarantee that they’ll offer you again – it doesn’t mean they didn’t hear you, it’s assumed that you were being polite and actually do want a cup! In Estonia, no means no! When refusing something in English it is polite to say ‘no thank you’ or ‘no thanks’ rather than just ‘no’ on its own – even if the person offering is a close friend.
  • ‘Tea’ in Britain can mean both the drink and also evening meal. If someone invites you for tea – be sure to check if they mean a meal or just a drink and a biscuit!
  • British people mostly eat 3 meals a day – Breakfast, Lunch and Evening Meal (called ‘tea’, ‘dinner’ or ‘supper’). Lunch is usually something light like a sandwich and some fruit. Evening meal is usually something hot. Most people have certain times when they eat these meals. In Estonia meal times are not such fixed occasions and neither is there such a ‘rule’ as main course and then dessert. People don’t all stop at the same time in Estonia to ‘have lunch’.

Business and communications

  • In Estonia, if one is addressing a group of people, it is very difficult to tell (unless you are yourself Estonian) what their reaction to what you are saying is. This can be rather disconcerting for a British person. Britons will vocalise what they think a lot more than Estonians eg. ‘That was very interesting, thank you’ or ‘I don’t agree with you on that matter’. Estonians will say nothing unless really prompted.
  • In Britain, long periods of silence are considered to be rather embarrassing and people will use small talk to break the silence. Silence in Estonia is considered a good thing and there is no desperate attempt to think of something to say!
  • In Estonia, people use imperatives (commands) all the time eg. ‘kuule!’, ‘Anna mulle’ etc. In Britain it is rude to use these without ‘please’ in almost all cases.
  • In general, British culture is much more vocal than in Estonia. In Britain we talk a lot of the time. We use small talk: if we want to express feelings we say something. Also, our humour is based largely on sarcasm and plays on words (usually saying one thing and meaning the opposite). A lot of our humour is based on making fun of one another – sometimes this is a sign of friendship.
  • In general, in British churches people stand up to sing and sit down to pray – in Estonia it’s the other way around!
  • Estonians (and I think Finno-ugric peoples in general) say exactly what they mean from the heart. If they do not have anything important to say, they will not say anything. This is one of the biggest differences between British and Estonian culture.
  • British people often plan much further ahead than Estonians and like to be precise about details – and then put them into writing. Communication between Estonians is less clear – they do not make a point, like Britons do, of clarifying agreements.
  • Estonians like to be alone or in small groups, they become very claustrophobic in large crowds. British people are more used to being surrounded by a lot of people.
  • Most Estonians will say they can’t speak English when actually they can and very well. British people often are impressed if foreigners can speak English, even if only a little, and will praise them for it.

Please and Thank you, Yes and No

  • British people exaggerate their thanks eg. ‘Thank you so much’, ‘You’re too kind’, ‘oh, really you shouldn’t have’… Estonians will say please and thank you but once is enough. To exaggerate gives an impression of insincerity and will make people very uncomfortable.
  • British people tend to exaggerate most comments, for example ‘Would you like a cup of tea?’ ‘I’d love a cup of tea!’ – an Estonian reply would be ‘yes’ or ‘no’!
  • Estonians do not use the word ‘yes’ (jah) like it is used in English. For example:

Are you a teacher? English reply: ‘Yes’. Estonian reply: ‘olen’ (I am)

Do we have any milk? English reply: ‘Yes’. Estonian reply: ‘on’ (it is)



  1. “Are you a teacher? English reply: ‘Yes’. Estonian reply: ‘olen’ (I am)

    Do we have any milk? English reply: ‘Yes’. Estonian reply: ‘on’ (it is)”

    Not sure how you came up with that, but it’s not accurate. It’s completely normal to just say “jah”, or “jah, on”.


    • I wrote this 13 years ago but I think my point was that sometimes people might just reply ‘on’ instead of ‘jah’ in Estonian. One would never do that in English. Thanks for the correction though.


  2. I think Estonians do like to hug when saying goodbye. We hug a lot these days. However, kissing is not an Estonian thing, unless you are romantically involved with someone.


  3. i been living in UK 5 years and one thing what is very different is that in shops they ask how are you, where are you from and lot more. but actually they dont care and its annoyng after 15 min you dont remember anyway who i am. Its not theyr bussines. I now its theyr whey to be polite but its feels fake. its just too much sometimes . in estonia nowbody really boder you.


    • I am neither Estonian or British. I am Canadian and maybe not so typical. When I go shopping, I usually end up speaking to salespeople. Just yesterday after buying a pair of boots, I asked the young man serving me if he was starting back to school soon. From our exchange I learned that he was in commerce, had spent a few weeks camping and canoeing in the far north with friends this summer and had been the official photographer. He was looking forward to going back to college in a week. I feel enriched by that conversation and I felt a connection with a young person just embarking on his life. This happens all the time.


    • I am planning to got o Estonia for a work permit as i have a job offer from a hotel. Can any here please advise me how is the life in Estonia and what about job in hotel earning 1200 Euros a month? is it good enough for single guy to live a good average life there? I belong to Asia. I need you help on this please.


      • 1200€ a month is way over the average here in Estonia (depending on the estimate, 1,3-1,5 times the average income) so you’ll do just fine, even if you don’t have any experience managing life on your own.
        A few tips, assuming you’ll be in Tallinn:
        1) Avoid buying stuff from the Old Town (outrageous prices)
        2) Live somewhere else than downtown or Old Town Tallinn
        3) Kopli and Lasnamägi are completely fine to explore during daytime, however DO avoid it during nighttime
        4) If you want to take a trip and see more of Estonia, trains are generally the best way of travelling – comfortable and quiet, but they always stick to the schedule and they’re always cheaper than catching a bus. is the webpage with the train schedules, and the page for all the public transport there is (planes and ferries/ships are not covered). Hitchhiking is an option, but not that consistent and reliable here.
        If you’re concerned about anything else, just ask.


      • 1200 euros a month is a good payment 🙂 You can live nicely with that money here.

        Welcome to Estonia 🙂



  4. I wanna go to Estonia.But I’m afraid because I don’t know Estonian is people reaction when a foreigner speak in English?
    How about Estonian people? They are friendly enough or not?


    • Most Estonians speak good English. I wouldn’t describe them as friendly but they will welcome you.


  5. As an Estonian it was really fun to reads this. There is some much true about this, in general and about myself as well!


  6. Can i just give you an Oscar, that is really nicely precise.🤔😁

    Though, you forgot estonian black humor, that is pretty deep also.😉


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